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Hva er forskjellen mellom et 32-biters og 64-biters system?

A: Begrepene "32-bit" og "64-bit" er ofte sett i Systemkrav og annen teknisk litteratur, men få mennesker vet faktisk hva disse begrepene betyr. Henviser de til maskinvare or programvare spesifikasjoner? Hva gjør et system til 64-bit og hva er forskjellen mellom en 64-bits datamaskin og en 32-bits modell? I de fleste tilfeller trenger du bare å vite om din operativsystem er 32-bit eller 64-bit for å kjøre et bestemt program. Når du bestemmer hvilken programvare som skal installeres på datamaskinen din, er det imidlertid nyttig å forstå hva begrepene egentlig betyr.

maskinvare

32-biters og 64-biters brukes ofte til å beskrive prosessoren arkitektur eller design. En 32-bits prosessor inkluderer en 32-bit registrere, som kan lagre 232 eller 4,294,967,296 verdier. En 64-biters prosessor inkluderer et 64-biters register som kan lagre 264 eller 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 verdier. Derfor er et 64-biters register ikke dobbelt så stort som et 32-biters register, men er 4,294,967,296 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX ganger større. Det er en stor forskjell, men hvordan påvirker det databehandlingens ytelse?

CPU-registeret lagrer minne adresser, som er hvordan prosessoren får tilgang dato fra RAM. En bit i registeret kan referere til et individ byte i minnet, slik at et 32-biters system kan adressere maksimalt 4 gigabyte (4,294,967,296 3.5 XNUMX XNUMX byte) RAM. Den faktiske grensen er ofte mindre - rundt XNUMX gigabyte - siden en del av registeret brukes til å lagre andre midlertidige verdier i tillegg til minneadresser.

Et 64-biters register kan teoretisk referere til 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 byte, eller 17,179,869,184 gigabyte (16 exabyte) minne. Dette er flere millioner ganger mer enn et gjennomsnitt arbeidsstasjon would need to access. What's important is that a 64-bit computer (which means it has a 64-bit processor) can access more than 4 GB of RAM. If a computer has 16 GB of RAM, it better have a 64-bit processor. Otherwise, at least 12 GB of the memory will be inaccessible by the CPU.

While 64 bits is far more storage than what modern computers require, it removes all bottlenecks associated with 32-bit systems. For example, 64-bit systems run more efficiently since memory blocks are more easily allocated. They also support 64-bit instructions and have 64-bit data paths, which enables them to process more data at once than 32-bit systems can.

programvare

So how does 32-bit or 64-bit hardware affect software? Generally speaking, 32-bit programmer can run on a 64-bit system, but 64-bit programs will not run on a 32-bit system. This is because 64-bit søknader include 64-bit instructions that will not be recognized by a 32-bit processor.

In order to run a 64-bit program, your operating system must be 64-bit. Around 2008, 64-bit versions of Windows og OS X became standard, though 32-bit versions were still available. Therefore, if you bought your computer in 2009 or later, there is a good chance you are running a 64-bit operating system. In Windows, you can check your OS version by høyreklikke min datamaskin, selecting Properties, and clicking System to view the system type. If you have a Mac and you are running OS X 10.7 or later, your OS is 64-bit.

Mens det er mulig å installere a 32-bit operating system on a 64-bit system, it is best to install a 64-bit version if possible. The 64-bit OS will allow your computer to access more RAM, run applications more efficiently, and, in most cases, run both 32-bit and 64-bit programs.

Exceptions to this rule include system verktøy og antivirus programs that are written specifically for a 32 or 64-bit operating system. In these cases, you will need to install the version of the software that corresponds to your OS (which may be different than your hardware). Additionally, enhetsdrivere are often written for specific operating systems, so it is important to install 32-bit drivers if you are running a 32-bit OS and 64-bit drivers if your operating system is 64-bit.

Sammendrag

Hopefully the above explanation has given you a better understanding of what 32-bit and 64-bit mean in reference to hardware and software. If you're installing an operating system, it's important to know what type of processor your computer has so you can install the right one. If you are installing software, it's important to know what type of operating system your computer is running, so you can install the correct version.

Most PCs today are 64-bit. However, if you have a 32-bit computer, you have no choice but to install a 32-bit OS. If you have a 64-bit system but have some mission critical periferiutstyr that do not have 64-bit drivers, installing a 32-bit OS might be your best option. In all other cases, it is best to buy 64-bit hardware, install a 64-bit operating system, and run 64-bit applications. This combination will provide the best possible performance.